Lesley Neuman: The First Touch Gentling Your Mustang $45.00
Lesley works with 3 wild horses at a BLM adoption, and very clearly explains what is happening, what she is doing, & what she sees in each horse as it progresses. Study this video and you can learn "pressure and release" gentling techniques to gentle your own new mustang!
Help for Burro adopters! Crystal Ward Donkey Training
All the basics of gentling, handling, and training. A MUST for new burro adopters! Good for domestic donkeys, too!
North America was the original home of the horse species. Horses evolved here, and equine species thrived here for over 57 million years. The plant and animal communities of North American ecology evolved with horses playing an integral role. About 8,000 - 10,000 years ago, for reasons not yet fully understood (meteors, climate change, pandemic, and human hunting pressures are among the possibilities), horses are believed* to have become extinct in the land of their origin. Luckily by that time they had migrated to Asia, where they spread into Europe and North Africa.
THE SEVEN LIVING SPECIES OF THE EQUUS FAMILY During the Pleistocene Era, there were more than 50 species of equids in the Americas. Now there are, worldwide, only 7 (or 8, depending on how you classify Przewalski's. Some consider it a separate species, others say it is a subspecies of equus caballus)
Family Equidae"Equus" Includes these Still Living or Recently Extinct Species and Sub-Species:
www.takhi.org/cms/index.php Przewalski's Horse or Takhi Some hold Przewalski's to be a separate species from the domestic horse (Equus Caballus), the last remnant of the wild horseEquus ferus, others hold it is a subspecies of Equus caballus.
Although the Przewalski's horse has 66 chromosomes, compared to 64 in a domestic horse, the Przewalski's horse and the domestic horse are the only equids that cross-breed and produce fertile offspring, possessing 65 chromosomes.
"The Przewalski horse can be crossed successfully with the domestic horse, producing offspring with 65 chromosomes. Unlike the offspring of a domestic horse and an animal such as a donkey or zebra, the offspring of a Przewalski/domestic horse is not sterile and can be crossed back to either species. If the offspring is crossed back to a domestic horse, the resulting animal will have 64 chromosomes and very few Przewalski characteristics." - WIKIPEDIA
Nubian Wild Ass - as a Wild animal The progenitor of all modern donkeys, including the Burro of the western states and Mexico. It was first domesticated about 6000 years ago. The Nubian Wild Ass is most likely extinct in the wild since the 1950's. However, the IUCN Red List still mentions it as critically endangered. - Wikipedia
Zebras are horse- or donkey-like animals with stripes. They are social animals who live in small harems or large herds. Zebras were the second modern equid to diverge from the earliest proto-horses, after the asses, around 4 million years ago. They are close enough genetically to horses and donkeys to interbreed, although the offspring, like horse-donkey offspring, are sterile. (Horse-Zebra crosses are called Zorses and Donkey-Zebra crosses are called Zonkeys or Zedonks)
The three existing zebra species differ in appearance primarily in ear shape and striping patterns. To each other, they differ in more fundamental ways: Although their territories overlap, they do not interbreed in the wild. In captivity, Plains Zebras have been successfully crossed with Mountain zebras. Attempts to breed Grevy's zebras to Mountain Zebras results in a high rate of miscarriage. (much of this is drawn from Wikipedia)
Although it is currently popular to own a zebra, zebras resist domestication, are extremely strong, have a far more powerful sense of self-preservation than other equines, require very expensive fencing and handling equipment, and generally make unreliable exotic pets, at best a pretty pasture ornament who is somewhat handle-able. Although a few trainers occasionally manage to train an individual zebra to a basic level of performance (catching, haltering, leading, perhaps doing a few tricks or allowing a person to ride them briefly), zebras have so far never been truly domesticated.
One of the more exciting rising stars in both the horse and zebra world is Obbie Schlom, who took both firswt and second places at the 2012 Norco Extreme Mustang Makeover, and was the youngest competitor ever to be invited to Road To The Horse. Here's a video where Obbie talks about the differences between training a horse, a mule, a zebra, and a bull calf: VIDEO
RECENTLY EXTINCT EQUUS SPECIES
During the millions of years that Mother Nature has experimented with Equine designs, many species have come and gone. Here are two of the more recent departures:
Tarpan The Tarpan is the original Euro-Asian wild horse pictured in cave paintings. It originally ranged over western and eastern Europe into central Russia. Cave drawings of Tarpan horses can be found in France and Spain, and artifacts showing this breed can be found in Southern Russia where this horse was domesticated by Scythian nomads in about 3000 B.C. According to cave paintings, their most common colors were bay dun, grullo, and spotted.
Wild Tarpans died out during the late 1800's. The last Tarpan horse died an a Ukranian game preserve at Askania Nova in 1876.
photo from Wikipedia Tarpan This is the only known photo of a live Tarpan, ''Equus ferus ferus''. This Tarpan stallion was caught in 1866 and purchased by the zoo of Moscow. Some dispute if it was a true Tarpan, due to the length of the mane.
It is now thought that the domesticated horse, named Equus caballus by Linnaeus in 1758, is descended from the Tarpan;
Many taxonomists consider the trapan and modern horse to belong to the same species.
Quagga mare in London Zoo in 1870 Quagga The Quagga was native to desert areas of the African continent until it was exterminated in the wild in the 1870s. The last captive Quaggas died in Europe in the 1880s.
The quagga was the first extinct creature to have its DNA studied. Recent genetic research at the Smithsonian Institution has demonstrated that the Quagga was in fact not a separate species at all, but diverged from the extremely variable Plains Zebra, Equus burchelli, between 120,000 and 290,000 years ago, and suggests that it should be named Equus burchelli quagga. - Wikipedia
photo by Alethe - Wikipedia
There are several people or groups who have worked to restore the Tarpan by selectively "breeding back" to Tarpan type, using horses such as the Konik and the Przewalksi's Horse.
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