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Lesley Neuman: The First Touch Gentling Your Mustang $45.00
Lesley works with 3 wild horses at a BLM adoption, and very clearly explains what is happening, what she is doing, & what she sees in each horse as it progresses. Study this video and you can learn "pressure and release" gentling techniques to gentle your own new mustang!
Help for Burro adopters! Crystal Ward Donkey Training
All the basics of gentling, handling, and training. A MUST for new burro adopters! Good for domestic donkeys, too!
Capital Letter = Dominant, expressed, trait is genetically "switched on" Small letter= not expressed, trait is not "switched on"; or Recessive gene
I have listed below common genetic notation used by two of the most widely-accepted sources - Dr. Phil Sponenberg and Dr. Ann Bowling. In some cases, different notation is used, but if you look carefully, you will find that they are saying the same thing.
Remember that genetic notation is based on theories, which are used to explain Real World experiences. It is perfectly okay for one geneticist to use one system of genetic notation and another to use a different system, since it is all theoretical anyway. Only a few color genes have been definitively identified. These include red, black, Tobiano, and Frame (Overo).
"Locus" - meaning "place" can be a confusing term to the beginner. It refers to the placement of a certain factor on a DNA string. I prefer to use the term "genetic modifier," which is also used by Dr. Ann Bowling and the UC Davis biology dept.
Color genetics are the same for all horses, regardless of breed or ancestry.
Since this is a Mustang website, I use and prefer pictures of wild, or formerly-wild horses wherever possible.
COMMON GENETIC NOTATION
White boxes denote notation used by Sponenberg, but not by Bowling and others
"Fr" is not the commonly accepted genetic symbol for frame overo. "O" is used in all scientific publications. Sponenberg uses the Fr symbol, but no one uses it. So a frame overo is Oo, and solids are oo.
E and e = the EXTENSION LOCUS, which determines whether or not Black pigment can be expressed Dominant "E" allows either red or black (which in reality usually means a BLACK horse, unless other modifiers restrict the black; Recessive "e" allows only Red.
Fl = Flaxen mane & tail (fl = no flaxen mane & tail) works only on "ee" red based horses
Fr = Frame Overo (fr = non frame)
G=Gray (g = not grey)
Lp = Leopard (Appaloosa Complex; New research may prove this obsolete; the many Appaloosa color patterns may be caused by more than one gene) lp = no leopard
P = Pangare (p = not pangare)
Rb = Rabicano (rb = not rabicano)
Rn = Roan (rn = not roan)
Sb = Sabino (sb = no sabino)
Spl = Splash (spl = no splash)
-Sty = Sooty/Smutty (-sty = no sootiness)
To=Tobiano (to = not tobiano)
W=Dominant White (w = not dominant white)
Z = Silver Dapples (z=no silver)
Sponenberg uses a more complex and slightly different notation:
A = restricts black to points (bay)
a=uniform brown/black over entire body
C=non-dilute, fully expressed
D=dun dilution; D dilutes both black and red base colors
d=non-dilute, or no dun
E=allows black color on points
F=red points on ee horses
f=flaxen points on ee horses
Sty=Smutty/Sooty= black mixed into body coat
Z=Silver Dapples: dilutes black to silver dapples; dilutes bay and brown to mimic sorrel; dilutes buckskin to appear near-palomino